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Brief Analysis of R.K Narayan’s ‘Engine Trouble’: Greater Simplicity of Plot and Language, even as it Develops a Greater Complexity of Meaning to Exhibit the Domain of India

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Malgudi Days fits neatly into R.K Narayan's literary evolution. According to the author himself, each of his stories displays a greater simplicity of plot and language, even as they develop a greater complexity of meaning to exhibit the domain of India. By the time Narayan wrote Malgudi Days the crowded action of his early fantasies was replaced by introspections of Indiannessstripped to its essence and resonant with meaning.

Life and Career of Mr. Micawber in Dickens’ ‘David Copperfield’: Great Comic Character Second Only to Shakespeare’s Falstaff

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Mr. Micawber, one of the outstanding characters inDickens’David Copperfield is a man of kindly, genial nature. Some critics say that he is a pen-portrait of Dickens’ own father. However it may be, there can be no denying the fact that he “is the type of a whole race of men who will not vanish from the earth as long as the hope which lives eternal in the human breast is only temporarily suspended by the laws of debtors and creditors.” A kindlier and merrier a more humorous and more generous character was never conceived than this.

Rise to an Unprecedented Spirit of Satire in the Augustan Age: From Dryden to Dr. Johnson

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“We must beat the iron while it is hot, but we may polish it at leisure.” John Dryden (1631 - 1700) English poet, playwright, and literary critic. Aeneis
Various causes gave rise to an unprecedented spirit of satire in the Augustan age, from John Dryden (1631-1700) to Samuel Johnson (1709-1784). It is a materialistic age in which certain fashions and modes of behaving and taste hold away.
 (1) What is considered “genteel taste” is vigorously upheld, and any deviation from it is satirized. (2) “Correctness” and “good sense” are the order of the day. Emphasis is on reason and correct observation of certain rules both in literature and social life. Rationalism develops clear thinking and the temptation to pronounce judgment is strong. This accounts for the rise both social and literary satire.  (3) The restoration witnessed a revolt against Puritan austerity. There was also a reaction against religious hypocrisy. The religious and the devout were criticized as hypocrites. The Puritans were the…

Wordsworth Reacted Sharply and Sought to Increase the Range Of English Poetry through Rustic Characters and Their Language

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The poetry of the Pseudo-classical school was very artificial and unnatural. It was extremely limited in its themes. It was confined exclusively to the city of London and in that city to the artificial and unnatural life of the fashionable lords and ladies. It did not care for the beauties of nature or for the humanity-farmers shepherds, wood cutters etc. Who live its simple life in the lap of nature? Wordsworth reacted sharply and sought to increase the range of English poetry by taking his themes from humble and rustic life, himself living in the lap of nature, was well familiar with the life of the humble people, and he has rendered it in his poetry, realistically and accurately.

Justifying Emergence of Poetic Drama in the 20th Century: A Critical Overview

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After the Restoration dramatists drama in English seems to have gone into hibernation, if it had not died altogether. There were at least two dramatists of great calibre in the closing years of the 19th century. Bernard Shaw and Oscar Wilde, but both of them steadfastly choose prose as the medium of their plays. The 20th century saw some powerful influence that exerted themselves on the drama, the influence of the great continental dramatists, and that of the Irish dramatic movement. It was, however, left to T. S. Eliot to rehabilitate poetic drama and place it on a sound footing.

Wordsworth Not Only Democratized But Revolutionized English Poetry: Critical Overview of Preface to Lyrical Ballads

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"Every great and original writer, in proportion as he is great and original, must himself create the taste by which he is to be relished." William Wordsworth (1770 - 1850) British poet. Lyrical Ballads (2nd ed.)
Wordsworth was the chief spokesman of the Romantic Movement. HisPreface to Lyrical Balladssays M.H. Abraham has been one of the most discussed and influential of all critical essays. “In the preface Wordsworth tried to overflow the basic theory, as well as the practice of non-classical poetry and also sought to defend and justify the new kind of poetry that he himself and Coleridge were writing.”
In the PrefaceWordsworth says that his principle object in the Preface is to choose incidents and situations from common life and to relate or describe them throughout as far as was possible in a selection really used by man, and at the same time to throw over theory a certain colouring of imagination. Where by ordinary things should be presented to the mind in an unusual aspec…

Post Chaucerian Barrenness in English Literature

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The literature of the fifteenth century is comparatively barren in production, and there are no any poets or prose-writer in consequence. There is a steep decline in poetry even in the hands of the English and Scottish Chaucereans. By that time that freshness of Chaucer, in the fields of characterization; narration and versification was come to an end. Chaucer’s great name and fame disciples like Lydgate, Langland, Dunbar, Skelton, Occleve, Barclay, Hawes etc. were also unable to keep the freshness of poetry   of their master. There is a marked decadence in style. In Chaucer’s great disciples the spirit of poetic imagination and phrasings always lacked. Their metres were merely decrial: Compared with master, their works seemed sheer childish. In the sphere of prose there is a little progress, though the prose of the fifteenth century is better man the prose of the preceding age. Several factors are responsible for the barrenness of literary production in this age. The War of Roses:The…

William Shakespeare’s “Measure For Measure” as a Dark Comedy With The Deus Ex Machina Dramatic Functionary Of Duke

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Measure for Measure is one of the dark comedies or problem plays of Shakespeare. In this group of plays, we find Shakespeare confronted with some practical problems of life— generally with the problem of evil in daily life—and we find him also trying for a comic solution but net often getting it. As a result, the comedy gets rather dark and an atmosphere of cynicism seems to emerge. In the present play, the thesis seems to build up round the problem of combining authority with mercy and justice for the purpose of eradicating the evils of a corrupt society.

Despite of Learning Mother Tongue Prioritized In the System of Education, English L2 Occupy the Most Important Place in the Learning System

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“There are many who understand Greek and Latin, and yet are ignorant of their Mother Tongue.” John Dryden (1631 - 1700) English poet, playwright, and literary critic. Sylvae (translation of Horace's Odes)
The system of learning English or any other foreign language after learning the mother tongue is justified or not is much debated.  The controversial subject needs to be cleared on the sequence of learning mother tongue and foreign language in more psychological analysis.  Although many century linguists strove to make their own mother dialects the basis for a standard language, attempts were also made to work out a general   tongue. Literature, however, languished in dominant language until the late   century, when signs of a marginalized language literary revival developed—in reaction to the dominant language, which had become rivaling, control over other languages.

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An English Teacher;    M. A.(English) , D. Ed., B. Ed., UGC- NET Qualified

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